The dreaded c-word rightly strikes fear into hearts across the globe. But lifestyle changes could stop a staggering 40 per cent of cancers from ever occurring, previous research has claimed. One reason may be down to epigenetics, a new area of research into the way our environment and lifestyles influence the genetics we’re born with.
Writing for Healthista, medical journalist Anna Magee reveals the eight proven ways to lower your risk. From wearing SPF30 factor sunscreen to losing some weight and exercising, here’s what you could do to lower the odds of getting it.
- LOSE TEN POUNDS
Some 60 per cent of Brits are overweight or obese. And being the fat man of Europe causes a staggering 52,000 cases of cancers each year including those of the breast, womb, liver, prostate and pancreas. Obesity is second only to smoking which causes 64,000 cases annually.
‘The heavier you are the greater your risk of these particular cancers,’ says Linda Bauld, professor of healthy policy at the University of Stirling. She explains even if you’re more than 20 pounds overweight, any weight loss will lower your risk.
Earlier this year, the World Cancer Research (WCRF) released new evidence linking obesity with stomach cancer, which is the third biggest cancer killer in the world.
- STICK TO A GLASS A NIGHT
Earlier this year, chief medical officer Dame Sally Davies declared no level of alcohol consumption was safe.She changed weekly recommendations to 14 units for both men and women.The key reason was the link between even low alcohol consumption and seven types of cancers including those of the breast, liver, bowel, mouth and throat.
The WCRF’s research recently linked three or more drinks a day to stomach cancer too.
‘The risk of cancer starts at even low levels of alcohol so it’s best to stick to a glass a night,’ Professor Bauld says. How about saving up all your units for Friday night, then?
‘Alcohol is ethanol which is metabolised into a substance called acetaldehyde which the body finds difficult to process,’ she explains.
‘High levels cause dehydration which makes cells more vulnerable to multiplying, and this effect is greater the more alcohol you drink on one occasion.’
- EAT YOGHURT
Our gut bacteria or microbiome has been linked with everything from mood to obesity in recent months.
And a growing number of studies are now linking it to lowered cancer risk.
The latest, published last month in the journal PLOS One gave one group of mice beneficial bacteria through probiotic supplements and the other non-beneficial bacteria.
The mice receiving the good bacteria produced metabolites known to prevent cancer in their guts and were also better able to metabolise fats.
‘Although most of the studies done on gut bacteria and cancer prevention are still on mouse models, the results are positive,’ says Tim Spector, professor of Genetic Epidemiology at King’s College London.
‘That’s probably because the microbes help break down some of the toxins in the gut that might normally cause cancer.
‘But also because they keep the immune system in great shape generally so it beats off the cancer cells.’
To keep your gut bacteria in good shape, eat a mix of probiotic foods such as live yoghurt, kefir and sauerkraut.
Also include prebiotic foods such as fruit, vegetables and high fibre whole grains and legumes to feed bacteria and help it grow, Professor Spector explains.
- Take An Aspirin
We’ve known for some time that taking a low-dose aspirin a day may help prevent the risk of heart attack.But now, growing evidence suggests it could help prevent colorectal or bowel cancer, which strikes over 40,000 Brits each year.
In April, the United States Preventative Service Task Force updated its guidelines to recommend all adults aged 50-59 should take a low dose aspirin for ten years.
Though the UK is yet to follow, many medical experts are convinced of aspirin’s benefit.
‘The evidence is strong that taking aspirin for five years or more reduces the risk of developing bowel cancer,’ says Professor Johnson.
‘It’s also been found that people who do get cancer are at less risk of having it spread if they take aspirin.’ If there is an inherited tendency toward bowel cancer, taking a low-dose aspirin is a good idea, he suggests.
‘Aspirin may work by reprogramming the way the immune system works in particular affecting the inflammation pathways in the lining of the gut, and thus having some effect on its ability to recognise very early cancers and remove them,’ Prof. Johnson says.
But it comes with risks such as bleeding from ulcers in the stomach, so talk to your doctor before taking it.
- MARINATE YOUR MEAT
In the 1990s the biggest study into nutrition and cancer began tracking the diets of 500,000 healthy people aged 45-79 across ten countries in Europe and Britain to see who would get cancer.
Among the key findings from European Study on Diet and Cancer (EPIC) were processed and red meat are associated with a higher risk of developing bowel and stomach cancers.
Current recommendations suggest sticking to 70 grams a day – two rashers of bacon.
According to Cancer Research UK, this one change could prevent a staggering 8,800 cases of bowel cancer each year.
Research also suggests charred or well-done meats may be associated with increased risk.
This is because of cancer-causing heterocyclic amines (HCAs) which form when meat is cooked at high temperatures.
But meat lovers don’t despair, fascinating research from Kansas State University found marinating meat in spices such as rosemary, thyme, oregano, basil, sage and marjoram before cooking could lower the HCA components in meat.
- GO FOR FIBRE
Increase fibre: Whole grains such as oats, brown rice and wholemeal bread have been linked to a lowered risk of bowel cancer
Simply increasing your fibre and your fruit and vegetable intake to five portions a day could help prevent 14 different types of cancers, the EPIC study found.
Increasing your intake of whole grains such as oats, brown rice and wholemeal bread was particularly associated with a lowered risk of bowel cancer.
Some research has suggested it may help prevent breast and prostate cancers too.
It’s not certain how it happens but some speculate that this too might be about gut bacteria.
‘Studies like EPIC show consistently that people who eat lots of fibre, fruit and vegetables have low levels of cancer,’ says Professor Spector.
‘The reason could be that these people consequently have a healthy gut microbiome that helps the immune system fight off cancers.’
- USE SPF 30
Though cases are up by a staggering 360 per cent since the 1970s, skin cancer is among Britain’s most preventable cancers.
In April this year, a study at Ohio State University confirmed wearing SPF 30 could help prevent not only burns but also malignant melanoma.
The researchers genetically engineered rodents to develop melanoma following application of different chemically-based SPF30 sunscreens.
All were found to reduce the incidence of tumours the mice developed.
‘Sunscreen is important but its also crucial to get in the shade when the sun is strong to wear a hat and to protect kids as children who have been exposed to sunburn are more likely to develop skin cancer as adults,’ says Professor Bauld.
When covering up, Spanish research found that blue and red fabrics offered better sun protection than white or yellow ones.
Make sure you protect areas where sun hits as these are where most cancers develop.
Think bald heads and torsos in men and or exposed calves in women.
- GET MOVING
Being active each day could prevent around 3,400 cases of breast, bowel and womb cancers in Britain.
The EPIC study found those who did 30 minutes of exercise each day or had an active job had lower chance of developing cancer.
While other research has confirmed being active each day could prevent around 3,400 cases of breast, bowel and womb cancers in Britain.
‘Being active improves hormone levels which can hep reduce a woman’s risk of developing breast and womb cancer,’ says Professor Johnson.
‘It also helps transit times in the intestine, helping food move through faster so there’s less chance of anything in the food you’ve eaten setting off an inflammatory reaction in the bowel which is how is lowers bowel cancer risk.’
Adapted from Daily Mail